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Увођење МБР процеса технологије пречишћавања канализације


Membrane bioreactor is a new process of wastewater biological treatment which is composed of membrane separation and biological treatment technology. There are many types of membranes, which are classified according to the separation mechanism, including reaction membranes, ion exchange membranes, and permeable membranes; according to the nature of the membranes, there are natural membranes (biological membranes) and synthetic membranes (organic membranes and inorganic membranes); Structural types are classified into flat type, tube type, spiral type and hollow fiber type.


1. Research status of MBR process in China

Од 1980-их, мембрански биореактори добијају све више пажње и постају једно од жаришта истраживања. Тренутно се технологија користи у више од десет земаља попут Сједињених Држава, Немачке, Француске и Египта, с размером од 6м3 / д до 13000м3 / д.

Кинеско истраживање МБР-а траје мање од десет година, али напредак је врло брз. Домаћа истраживања МБР-а могу се грубо поделити на неколико аспеката:

1. Explore the combination of different biological treatment processes and membrane separation units. The biological reaction treatment process extends from activated sludge method to contact oxidation method, biofilm method, composite process combining activated sludge and biofilm, and two-phase phobia Oxygen process

2. Research on the factors, mechanism and mathematical model that affect the treatment effect and membrane fouling, explore suitable operating conditions and process parameters, reduce membrane fouling as much as possible, and improve the processing capacity and operating stability of membrane modules;

3. Expand the application scope of MBR, the research object of MBR expands from domestic sewage to high-concentration organic wastewater (food wastewater, beer wastewater) and non-degradable industrial wastewater (petrochemical wastewater, printing and dyeing wastewater, etc.), but the main treatment is domestic wastewater .


2. Features of MBR process

У поређењу са традиционалном биохемијском технологијом пречишћавања воде, МБР има следеће главне карактеристике:

1. Efficient solid-liquid separation, the separation effect is much better than the traditional sedimentation tank, the effluent water quality is good, the effluent suspended solids and turbidity are close to zero, can be directly reused, and realize the recycling of sewage.

2. The high-efficiency interception function of the membrane allows microorganisms to be completely trapped in the bioreactor, achieving complete separation of the reactor's hydraulic retention time (HRT) and sludge age (SRT), and the operation control is flexible and stable. 

3. Because MBR combines the traditional aeration tank and secondary sedimentation tank of sewage treatment into one, and replaces all the technological facilities of tertiary treatment, it can greatly reduce the floor space and save civil engineering investment.

4. Conducive to the interception and reproduction of nitrifying bacteria, the system has high nitrification efficiency. It can also have the functions of deamination and dephosphorization by changing the operation mode.

5. Since the mud age can be very long, the degradation efficiency of refractory organics is greatly improved.

6. The reactor is operated under high volume load, low sludge load, and long sludge age. The remaining sludge output is extremely low. Since the sludge age can be infinitely long, in theory, zero sludge discharge can be achieved.

7. The system realizes PLC control, easy operation and management.

3. Composition of MBR process

The commonly mentioned membrane-bioreactor is actually a general term for three types of reactors:

1. Aeration membrane-bioreactor (Aeration Membrane Bioreactor, AMBR);

2. Extraction membrane-bioreactor (Extractive Membrane Bioreactor, EMBR);

3. Solid-liquid separation membrane-bioreactor (Solid / Liquid Separation MembraneBioreactor, SLSMBR, referred to as MBR).